Brazilian capital The
most valuable thing that the first Portuguese discovered on the lands of South America is the mahogany pau-brazil. According to one version, it (from Portuguese “brazil” meaning “heat”) and gave a new name to the country. The capital of Brazil is called exactly the same. In Russian, not to be confused, the city is written with “a” on the end — Brasilia.
First capitals The
first capital of this South American country was El Salvador. In this city, northeast Brazil, in the middle of the 16th century, the Portuguese laid plantations of tobacco and sugar cane, which began to bring slaves from Africa.
In 1763, Brazilians moved the capital from the northeast coast to the southeast — to Rio de Janeiro. But to manage huge areas from the outskirts became increasingly uncomfortable. And Rio de Janeiro grew, became cramped, uncomfortable, it was surrounded by the slums of the poor. So is the question of the construction of a new capital.
The cause was taken up by then-President Jucelino Kubitschek di Oliveira. It was an unusual politician. He promised Brazilians during his five years of rule such a leap in the economy that others would need 50 years for. One of the points of his “Rapid Leap Program” was the construction of a new capital — a symbol of transformation. This part of the program was done in three years.
Selection of the place
for the new capital was chosen on the plateau in the center of the Brazilian plateau, at an altitude of 1158 m This plateau is considered the core of mainland South America. It lies between the Atlantic Ocean and the Amazon Lowland, occupies almost the entire country. It is dominated by savannas and tropical redwoods. Along ravines and river plains, the savanna is crossed by dark green forests. The rivers of the Brazilian Plateau are with waterfalls and rapids.
face of the capital
was designed by Lucio Costa, who is called the father of modern Brazilian architecture. The capital was conceived of being liveable. Spacious, comfortable, without dirty air and poverty. Brazilians themselves called it “another planet.”
From its height, Brasilia resembles a plane. In the center, the “cockpit”, is the triangular square of the Three Authorities. At its corners are buildings of state power with original architecture. Not far from the Cathedral, and nearby stands a theater resembling an Egyptian pyramid.
The “torso” of the capital are neighborhoods with state and public buildings, and “wings” are residential buildings that do not more than six floors. All houses are strictly oriented on the sides of the world and stand on supports — under them you can pass and pass.
Initially Brasilia was designed for comfortable accommodation of 50 thousand people. Its current population is more than 2.5 million.