Childhood and youth In the
thirties of the last century, the young Soviet Republic was established within its natural borders. In order not to depend on the whim of major capitalist countries, the party set the task of mastering the northern sea route from Murmansk to Vladivostok. The first expedition was led by Ivan Dmitrievich Papanin. At that time still a young and energetic science organizer and experienced sailor. To work in polar latitudes, courage, aging, and observation is required from man. The subsequent reversal of events revealed that the man ended up in his seat.
The future Polar came to light on November 26, 1894 in the family of a sailor. The boy became the eldest of six children in the house. The parents lived on the outskirts of the legendary city of Sevastopol. His father served on a guard ship. Mother was engaged in housekeeping and upbringing of children. Ivan had a short childhood. As early as five years old, he was helping his mother with chores around the house. And a year later he started going fishing and almost always came home with a catch. Papanin studied only four years in Zemsk primary school. His mother died rapidly, and he had to go to work in the workshops of the military port.
Hikes and expeditions
After the outbreak of World War I Papanina was called for service in the Navy. After the October Revolution of 1917, the experienced sailor by persuasion moved to the side of the Bolsheviks. He took an active part in the Civil War. He commanded a guerrilla detachment. I liberated Crimea from white guards. He served as secretary of the Revwar Soviet of the Black Sea Fleet. In 1922 Ivan Dmitrievich was transferred to Moscow, where he graduated from the Higher Courses of Communication. The certified specialist was sent to Yakutia for the construction of a radio technical complex.
Beginning in 1930 he directed the research polar station on France-Joseph Earth. He then engaged in observations and measurements at Cape Chelyuskin. In 1937, Papanin was appointed chief of the world’s first drifting station, the North Pole. Scientific results obtained during the period of drift served as the basis for the defense of his doctoral thesis. During the Great Patriotic War Ivan Dmitriyevich directed cargo transportation along the Northern Sea Route. In 1946, he was relieved of office for health reasons.
Recognition and personal life
In the biography of the illustrious Polar, it is noted that he managed to restore health, and returned to the North as a scientific worker. Papanin was appointed deputy director of the Institute of Oceanology for expeditions. The party and the government appreciated the activities of the brave Polar. Ivan Dmitrievich was awarded the honorary title Hero of the Soviet Union twice.
Personal life of scientist and researcher developed safely. He shared most of his active life with Galina Kirillovna Kastorzhivska. She assisted him in collecting and processing the data received. The couple died in 1973 of cancer. Ivan Dmitrievich Papanin died in January 1986. He was buried in Novodevichy Cemetery.