first organic compounds that subsequently served as material for living cells arose under the influence of various natural factors: ultraviolet radiation, heat, electrical discharges.
The emergence of the first replicators was a key moment in the evolution of the organic world. A replicator is a molecule capable of catalyzing the synthesis of its own copies and matrices (an analog of reproduction). Such molecules include RNA and DNA.
Replicator molecules launched the mechanism of prebiological (chemical) evolution, the first subject of which was primitive RNA molecules, consisting of multiple nucleotides. They were already capable of reproduction (replication), subjected to mutations (copying errors), death (molecule destruction), participated in the struggle for survival and natural selection.
RNA, unlike DNA is a universal molecule. Not only can it be a carrier of hereditary information and be a replicator, it can also perform an enzymatic role that is not characteristic of DNA.
At a certain point, RNA enzymes appeared, accelerating lipid synthesis. Fat molecules are polar, have a linear structure, and in weighting spontaneously assemble into spherical shells. So RNAs were able to surround themselves with protective sheaths made up of lipids.
When RNA sizes increased, multifunctional molecules began to appear. The performance of different functions has been differentiated between individual parts of them.
Initially, cell division occurred under the influence of external factors. Due to intracellular lipid synthesis and increased cell size, it lost strength, the amorphous shell was torn apart. In the subsequent process went under the regulation of enzymes.
There are many unresolved problems in the issue of the appearance of a living cell. For example, how the functions of storing hereditary information moved from RNA to DNA, how did complex processes in the cell synchronize, at what stage did protein synthesis begin? All this for now can only be guessed.