What is bipolar disorder
Initially, the term “manic depressive psychosis” referred to all mood disorders. The concept was introduced at the end of the 19th century and existed until the sixties of the 20th century, when the German scientist, psychiatrist Karl Leongaard created his nosological classification of psychotic diseases . Leongaard introduced the term “bipolar disorder” and contrasted it with “unipolar disorder”. Put simply, he separated sufferers in major depressive disorder from those whose episodes of depression alternate with periods of mania. Psychosis, which appears in one of the names of the disease, is one of its most serious stages.
In the world, about 4% of the population suffer bipolar disorder.
By severity of the course, the disease is divided into bipolar disorder I and II type T into cyclotomic disorder. Type I bipolar disorder is the most dangerous, depressive periods can interfere with social and personal life, and manic episodes are dangerous for both the sick and those around him. Bipolar disorder type II is less dangerous, but the depressive phases in it are longer, but manic episodes usually take the form of hypomania, less severe disorder. Cyclotomic disorder is the most “mild” type of disease.
Often in bipolar disorders highlight those of seasonal nature and disorders with rapid phase change, cyclical alternation of episodes.
Hypomaniacal and manic episodes
Hypomanium is one of the “mild” phases of bipolar disorder. During it, patients can only be slightly more excitable, but active, energetic and even possible more successful. Hypomanias like mania are characterized by increased self-confidence and, to varying degrees, inflated self-esteem.
Moving from goipomania to mania, painfully begins to feel not just intelligent and successful, but “bulletproof,” infallible, full of ingenious ideas and energy for their embodiment. Sick in a manic episode “huddles” in an abundance of his own thoughts, his speech becomes chaotic and spontaneous, language does not keep up with words born in exhausted reasoning. Patients are difficult to interrupt, sometimes they begin to speak in rhyme and not only frantically gesticulate, but also to dance, without ceasing to broadcast. A characteristic symptom of the manic episode is insomnia. It seems sick that they have so much energy that 2-3 hours of sleep a day is enough to recuperate.
Other symptoms of the manic phase are:
– Increased sex drive
– divisive and risky behavior
– increased irritability
– Unreasonable financial investments, $ kootezhi and risky spending;
– cravings for alcohol and drugs.$
It’s difficult for a patient to focus, his thoughts jump from one to another. It is in the manic phase that a person can become aggressive and susceptible to psychosis, down to delusional and hallucigenous disorder. Manic episodes are dangerous not only for the sick, but also for those around them.
During the depressive phase, the patient can not get out of bed all days, motivated by the fact that he has no need to go somewhere, and there is no force for it. a manic episode is replaced by apathy, a confidence in one’s own exceptionality—a conviction of the negligibility and futility of one’s existence.
Symptoms of a depressive episode are:
– abnormal decrease or increase in appetite;
– loss of sex drive
– indecision; – increased anxiety;
– exacerbated guilt;
– loss of concentration of attention. The
depressive phase can also become psychotic and is accompanied, in an acute form, by delirium and hallucinations. In a depressive episode, the sick is most often dangerous to himself, because he is often visited by suicidal thoughts that he can realize.
Mixed Affective Episodes
Mixed Episodes are the most dangerous in bipolar disorder. During them, the patient simultaneously shows symptoms of depression and mania. He may burst into tears during his “ingenious” inspired speech or without reason to jump from the bed and indulge in a violent activity, the patient can simultaneously make grand plans and feel himself loser. Bouts of panic end in aggression.
In any phase of the disorder, the patient needs the help of qualified doctors.