How do puncture
In diagnostics puncture is used to detect fluid, determine its character, chemical and cellular composition. Such manipulation is done in case of suspected breast cancer, abdominal water, ascitis, purulent inflammation of the joints, abscesses, etc. leukemia (blood cancer). The puncture of the veins is performed for the extraction of blood for tests, as well as for blood transfusions. Spinal puncture is performed to obtain cerebrospinal fluid to study its composition.
Puncture is contraindicated to people suffering from hemophilia, as well as in abdominal echinococcal cysts.
Puncture is an operational intervention, so it is necessary to comply with the requirements of aseptics and antiseptics. The patient’s skin at the site of the future puncture is required to be lubricated When performing the manipulation, local narcosis is done by injecting 0.25% solution of novocaine. After that, puncture is performed. The needle is injected into the depth of the body perpendicular to the skin, until there is a sense of lack of resistance. When promoting it, the doctor should exercise caution as there is a risk of injury to important organs and large vessels. Once the needle is introduced, the piston of the syringe is drawn. If the liquid is not picked up, the needle is pushed further inland. After a particular result, the syringe is pulled out and the puncture site is closed with a colloidal bandage.
Possible effects of puncture
As a result of violations of the rules of puncture, the patient may have various complications. For example, due to aseptic disturbance, it is possible to bring an infection into the body cavity with the formation of a phlegmona or abscess. When pulling the needle too slowly into the done canal can flow pus, it can cause the development of inflammation. When puncturing the pleura, it is possible to wound the intercostal vessels, puncture the lung sometimes leads to coughing, blood in sputum.
Injection of air into the pleura cavity can cause shortness of breath.
After puncture of the spinal cord, the patient may appear dizziness, headaches, spinal pain, nausea, vomiting, cramps, numbness in the lower ones limbs. These symptoms pass in ten to twelve hours. In rare cases, more severe complications that have a fatality (bleeding, meningitis) may develop. In ascitis during puncture it is possible to wound abdominal organs with severe bleeding. With puncture of the bladder, damage to the peritoneum is possible followed by wound infection. Complications of a puncture of the vein are hematoma, a deposition of subcutaneous fiber.