Indications for the conduct of hemodialysis
for the first time a session of hemodialysis in humans was held in Strasbourg in 1911. Widespread use of the procedure has now saved millions of people suffering from acute and chronic kidney failure. Hemodialysis is prescribed in the presence of signs of uremic intoxication: nausea, vomiting, unstable pressure, weakness, slight temperature increase. This condition is caused by the accumulation of harmful substances in the blood, in kidney diseases they are not excreted. The procedures are also prescribed in excess of fluid, which is manifested by swelling, as well as increased or decreased concentration of potassium, chlorine, sodium in the blood.
Hemodialysis is indicated in marked renal dysfunction (if the rate of glomerular filtration is below 10 ml/min), in decompensated acidosis (condition associated with increase blood acidity), in life-threatening swelling of the brain and lungs that were caused by body intoxication. Acute hemodialysis is prescribed to patients with acute renal failure in critical condition. Typically, it is performed daily for a long time. With a favorable course of the disease, it is possible to restore kidney function (completely or with a defect). Chronic hemodialysis undergo patients with chronic renal failure in the terminal stage.
Since there is no need for hospitalization to perform chronic hemodialysis, the quality of life of patients is hardly reduced.
The process of hemodialysis
To carry out hemodialysis of the patient is connected to the device “artificial kidney”. It is an instrument equipped with hydraulic and electrical systems that ensure an efficient and safe process of blood purification and saturation with useful substances. The standard session is performed at a blood flow rate of 250-350 ml/min. The exact rate of blood flow, dialysis time and other parameters are calculated depending on body weight.
To connect to the device “artificial kidney” puncture blood vessels is performed.
patient’s blood is taken from the artery and passed through the dializer, while water, toxins and unnecessary body products are filtered through the membrane of the apparatus. No bacteria, blood elements, proteins pass through it. The purified blood is then returned to the patient’s body through a vein. Patients are generally recommended for three sessions of chronic hemodialysis per week, each lasting at least four hours. Once a month, patients must donate blood for analysis to determine the degree of purification and adjust the hemodialysis program if necessary. Every six months patients need to take a blood test to determine the viruses of pale treponema, hepatitis B, C, HIV. All patients treated with hemodialysis should be inoculated against hepatitis B and C as a matter of course.