Causes of pulmonary emphysema
The main cause of pulmonary emphysema is chronic bronchitis, which develops most often in men aged 30 to 60 years . Pulmonary emphysema is the outcome of this disease. The development of emphysema is facilitated by smoking, harmful working conditions associated with the inhalation of particles of silicon, asbestos or coal dust, air pollution.
Hereditary factors and suffered lung diseases play an important role in the onset of the disease.
Pulmonary emphysema can lead to severe consequences – respiratory failure can develop. Symptoms of emphysema of the lungs are pronounced shortness of breath, increase in chest volume, decrease of its respiratory movements, expansion of the subravicle regions, expansion of the intercostal interspaces, cyanosis. In the early stages of the disease, the main symptom is shortness of breath during physical activity, which first appears most often in winter. When the disease develops, shortness of breath appears even with little physical effort and at rest. Breathing movements of the chest decrease, and breast and neck muscles begin to participate in breathing.
Prevention and treatment of pulmonary emphysema
To prevent the development of emphysema, it is necessary to start the treatment of bronchitis as early as possible, preventing its transition into the chronic stage. It is necessary to exclude smoking and other harmful factors (including occupational factors) affecting lung tissue. The first place in the prevention and treatment of pulmonary emphysema is the cessation of smoking. The measure would significantly improve the further outlook. Moreover, the one-moment cessation of smoking has a much greater effect than the gradual reduction of the number of cigarettes.
Treatment of emphysema of the lungs is carried out by a pulmonologist. For the diagnosis of the disease, examination of the function of external breathing, radiological examination, computer tomography of the lungs are performed. As a treatment, smoking cessation and therapy for the disease that caused emphysema (chronic bronchitis, asthma) are required.
In the case of severe forms of the disease, the doctor may offer to issue a disability group.
Patient is prescribed oxygen therapy, special respiratory gymnastics, in case of infectious processes it is necessary to take antibiotics. Drugs that reduce the amount of phlegm and thinner it are also prescribed for treatment, as well as drugs that relieve spasm of bronchial muscles and dilate bronchi. Surgical operation to remove bulls is performed in case of bulleus emphysema.