Epilepsy: causes and consequences

The diagnosis of epilepsy is made if a person has suffered at least two serious seizures and there are no other diseases that could cause such a state. Diagnosis of this disease occurs as follows: the doctor first evaluates the frequency and severity of attacks, records the dynamics of disease development. Then, for the final diagnosis uses electroencephalography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to assess the state of the brain and the processes taking place in it.

When the diagnosis is confirmed, treatment is prescribed with special antiepileptic drugs that relieve the severity and frequency of seizures. More often than not, medications are taken regularly over a lifetime.

If there have been no attacks for several years, the doctor sometimes cancels medication. But even in this case, a person needs to constantly monitor all changes in his condition and at the slightest suspicion of seizure to see a doctor.

The danger of epilepsy is that attacks cannot be controlled or foretold. A person with the condition can pass out in a water-filled bath, when crossing the street or descending the stairs, fall face on a pillow or tip a cup of hot tea on themselves and hard suffer, and in some cases even die. Therefore, those with epilepsy need constant monitoring and assistance from loved ones.

Varieties of epilepsy

There are several types of epileptic seizures of varying severity: from short-term loss of consciousness to uncontrolled muscle contraction with the appearance of foam from mouth. The latest attacks are the most dangerous, they can end in death due to tongue-stocking or spasm of the pectoral muscles.

If a small part of the brain is responsible for the seizure, such a seizure is called partial or focal. When the whole brain suffers, it is possible to talk about the onset of a generalized seizure.

There are also mixed attacks, they start from a small area and spread rapidly throughout the surface of the brain, involving new and new areas.

In the most severe cases, where medication does not help, the doctor may suggest removing the lesion hotbed surgically. In this operation, the part of the brain that is responsible for the attacks is cut out, after which epileptic seizures stop. However, this method of treatment is used only in extreme cases and for its success requires a very experienced doctor and the most modern equipment.

Causes of epilepsy

The general causes of this disease doctors have not yet been able to find out. The disease is not directly related to heredity, however, the risk of its occurrence is significantly increased if a family member is ill. Approximately 40% of people with this diagnosis have close relatives who are also ill with epilepsy.

Another group of people who have suffered traumatic brain injury, concussion, stroke. The brain tumour and various disorders of cerebral circulation due to infectious diseases, or congenital weakness of cerebral vessels can give impetus to the development of epilepsy.

Seizures are observed in infants at high temperature, but this does not necessarily mean that in the future the disease will develop and go into chronic stage.

old people aged over 60 years. According to WHO, about 5 — 7 people out of a thousand suffer the disease.

In 70% of cases the cause of the disease happens and remains unclarified.

Effects of epilepsy

With proper and ongoing treatment, most sufferers live normal lives without severe seizures. The exacerbation of the disease can cause abrupt cessation of medication, as well as severe stress, alcohol, brain injuries.

Might have to limit yourself in activities such as driving a car, swimming in the pool and some others.

If it is a child or adolescent, it is necessary to restrict participation in sports games and competitions. Despite the correct selection of treatment in children, especially during puberty, adverse effects such as hyperactivity and learning difficulties are possible.

Regardless of age, the patient needs to constantly monitor his mental state, as it directly depends on the course of illness.

Women with epilepsy are not contraindicated to bear and bear children, but it is necessary to do so under constant supervision of the doctor, as such pregnancy is a high-risk group. It is not possible to abruptly stop taking drugs in any case even during the period of carrying out a child, so doctors must develop the best possible schedule in each case of treatment and administration of drugs to exclude possible negative effects on the fetus.

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