Arabica species have fleshy dark green leaves, grey bark and fragrant white flowers. Fruits on trees appear at the same time as flowers. The fruits are distinguished by a beautiful purple or red color. They tie down throughout the year, maturing in six to eight months. Thus, the tree can also be present at the same time both flowers, knotted and fruit, which makes it significantly difficult to collect arabica. Only in Brazil does fruit ripen at about one time, this is due to climate features. In most countries, arabica is harvested by hand or shaken on special litters.
Depending on the place where trees grow, the caffeine content of grains can vary significantly. Its maximum content is recorded in arabica grains growing in Colombia. Caffeine content is affected by plantation height above sea level, soil composition, approximation to the equator. For example, coffee from “mountain” arabica contains caffeine twice as much as “valley”. It should be noted that these trees are extremely reluctant to grow at an altitude less than a kilometre above sea level. So in the really low valleys it is most common to grow another kind of coffee tree, which is known as robusta.
Once harvested, arabica fruit is processed. Its purpose is separating the grains from the shells. There are two types of treatment — wet and dry. The choice of method depends on the degree of water availability. Traditionally, fruit is processed dryly in Ethiopia and Brazil, in other places of growing arabica is used damp, as the problem of water supply is not so acute.
are the most common coffee variety. In fact, seventy-five percent of all coffee consumed belongs to this variety. From this coffee is obtained popular blends, mixing different kinds and subspecies of arabica.
Getting unique coffee mixtures is not an easy process. Typically, varieties with relatively similar properties are used when creating coffee mixtures. Sometimes experts can mix the grains of one variety of arabica, but different degrees of roasting. Two to fourteen components can be present in a single coffee mixture, on average the number is not more than eight. There are also monovarieties of coffee, which contain grains removed from trees of the same species.