main difference between the runic alphabet and other European alphabets is that each rune has its own specific value. If the name of the letters is merely a meaningless set of sounds, then the name for the runes is the words of the Germanic pranlanguage. For example: the rune “feu” denotes “cattle” and the runes “uruz” and “turisaz” denotes “bison” and “giant” respectively. The oldest of the runic alphabets are the 24 runes of the Elder Futhark. Later, younger Scandinavian runes developed, which numbered 16 letters.
In addition, each rune has its own special religious and magical meaning. Which automatically turns the writing process into a magical ritual. Runes have long been used for divination and writing various magic spells.
Runes are linear signs depicted so that they can easily be cut out of wood. The basis of most runes were 1 or 2 vertical lines cut perpendicular to the direction of the wood fibre. Horizontal lines tried to avoid.
Besides wood, runes were carved on coins, gold plates, stone slabs and boulders, and on clay pots. The runes applied to gilded planks were thought to bring good fortune and happiness. Runic inscriptions made in the Constantinople Cathedral of Saint Sophia and on the marble lion in Piraeus are known.
Runic inscriptions generally consisted of a single word, less often of several. Inscriptions consisting of several words, a phenomenon extremely rare. Runes were depicted on a wide variety of objects, from coins to coffins.
The magical function of runes was the reason for their official ban. It happened in 1639, during the church’s witch-hunt period. Masters of runic art had to hide, many of them destroyed. Knowledge began to be transmitted by word of mouth, so ancient traditions became intertwined with late esoteric knowledge. It is in this form that information about runes has reached the present day.