Roots of counterculture
For the first time the term “counterculture” was used by Theodore Rozzak, an American sociologist. It was he who decided to call so new directions in art, which repeatedly declared itself in a rather original way. If it is typical for ordinary subculture to be just near the main current, but move in the same direction, the counterculture has a clear opposition to generally accepted norms and traditions. It was the counterculture that decided to contrast itself with what is accepted in the conventional understanding of things.
The leaders of the current considered the feelings and emotions placed in the apogee, which are beyond logical comprehension in ordinary ways. Counter-cultural people question dominant cultural values, moral and ethical foundations, and create their own system of worldview coordinates.
A prime example of such a current can be called American hippies in the 60s of the last century. “People of Flowers” dressed in strange bright garments, gathered in communes, sang songs, took hallucinogens, and rejected common norms of morality. The usual thing was promiscuous sex, children raised by the whole community and so on. In the 1970s, they were replaced by punks and declared their rights and freedoms.
In the Soviet Union you can remember rock culture underground, which was formed by apartments, underground concerts. Cut off from the West, receiving only crumbs of real culture from abroad, these people sought to understand and rethink what fell into their hands, and on the basis of that to create something of their own.
How counterculture is formed
In fact, counterculture can be called almost any phenomenon that contrasts its principles with societal. If you look into the history of the issue, even Christianity in the early stages of its inception can be called a counterculture.
When a leader appears, followers gather around him. If it can offer something instead of generally accepted norms, in something it fills a spiritual and mental crisis in people’s hearts and minds, then a countercultural current is formed.
Thus, in a criminal environment, when a closed community is forced to live by strict rules, the role of a leader becomes particularly significant. But there are examples of state scale, for example communism.