In winter the temperature here reaches 40-50°C below zero, in summer it keeps around 0°C.
North Pole prior to its discovery
In prehistoric times people thought the Earth was flat, so no notion that could exist poles, they didn’t have. In ancient Greece, the first assumptions began to be made that the Earth was shaped like a balloon. But it was not until the Middle Ages that the term that meant the northernmost part of the globe, where the axis of rotation runs. It was called the Arctic Pole. In the 15th century, some scientists had already guessed that it was in the ocean.
The first attempt to reach the North Pole was made by the English traveller and navigator Hudson in the early 17th century, but the ice kept his ship from advancing further on the shores Greenland.$ In the mid-18th century, Russian scientist Lomonosov proposed the idea of how one could get to the pole — one must move from Svalbard when the wind disperses the ice and opens the sea for swimming. The Russian admiral, on the orders of Catherine II, went on an expedition to the North Pole, but never reached it.
A few years later, the attempt to reach the pole was repeated by the British expedition, but it could not pass beyond the eightieth degree north latitude.
Several more expeditions were conducted thereafter, but they all ended in failure. In 1908, Frederick Cook recounted how he reached with the Eskimos to the pole, but could not prove it. In 1909, American Robert Pirie stated that he had managed to conquer the North Pole, but provided no supporting facts, and the speed of his trek cast doubt on it.
Opening of the North Pole
Members of the Soviet Sever-2 expedition, made on aircraft in 1948, became the first people at the North Pole. They were Pavel Senko, Pavel Gordienko, Mikhail Somov and other researchers. They flew three aircraft from Boetelny Island and landed almost exactly at a point at a 90-degree north latitude coordinate. They stayed at the site for a few days, made some sightings, and went back.
A year later a parachute jump was made in the area, with an American submarine reaching the pole in 1958. Ten years later, the first land expedition to the North Pole was made — its participants moved on snowmobiles and received the right supplies from the aircraft that accompanied them.