What do geologists do?
Geology is engaged in studying the composition of the Earth’s crust, its structure, as well as the history of its formation. Three main directions of geology are distinguished: dynamic, historical and descriptive. Dynamic geology explores changes in the Earth’s crust as a result of various processes such as erosion, destruction, earthquakes, volcanic activity. Geologist-historians are focused on imagining the processes and changes that have taken place with the planet in the past. The most familiar image of a geologist corresponds to the specialists of descriptive geology, because this branch of science is engaged in studying the composition of the Earth’s crust, the content of certain fossils, minerals or rocks.
Geology became a sought-after science in the era of the scientific and technological revolution, when humanity needed many new resources and energy.
Subsoil studies for descriptive geology include not only sample-collecting expeditions or exploratory drilling, but also analysis data, geological mapping, evaluation of development prospects, construction of computer models.$ Work “in the field”, that is, direct surveys on the ground, take only a few months of the field season, and the rest of the time the geologist spends in the laboratory. Naturally, the main object of search is minerals.
It is geology that deals in particular with finding out the exact age of planet Earth. Thanks to the development of scientific methods, the planet is known to be about 4.5 billion years old.
Specialists of mineral geology traditionally fall into two main groups: those looking for ore deposits, and those studying non-metallic minerals. This division is due to the fact that the principles and patterns of formation for ore and non-metallic fossils are different, so geologists tend to specialize in something of one. Useful ore fossils include most metals, such as iron, nickel, gold, as well as some types of minerals. Non-metallic fossils include combustible materials (oil, gas, hard coal), various building materials (clay, marble, rubble), chemical ingredients and finally precious and semi-precious stones such as diamonds, rubies, emeralds, jasper, carnelian and many others. The
geologist’s work is to predict the occurrence in a particular area of minerals based on analytical data, to conduct a study in a field expedition with the aim of confirm or refute their assumptions and then, based on the information received, make a conclusion on the prospects of industrial development of the field. At the same time, the geologist proceeds from the estimated number of fossils, their percentage content in the Earth’s crust, commercial justification of mining. Therefore, a geologist must not only be physically hardy, but also have the ability to analytic thinking, to know the fundamentals of economics, geodesy, to constantly improve his knowledge and skills.