Impurities of vanadium, chromium oxide and iron provide the green color of the mineral. Due to their content, the coloration of natural crystals varies from warm yellowish-green to cool turquoise-emerald.
Creation of the technique
Adding substances in different proportions provided the opportunity for scientists to create samples of a predetermined hue. The quality of each synthesized crystal is confirmed by the certificate.
Growing up in the lab takes much less time than it does in natural settings. Synthesized stone is much cleaner and more transparent than its natural fellow human beings.
To distinguish natural and artificial gems use ultraviolet. Synthesized self-color acquires a brownish hue under the action of the beam, the natural color does not change.
hydrothermal method was developed by German scientists Perret and Ortfel. In 1888 they conducted the first experiments in the cultivation of artificial crystals. To avoid competition, for a long time the invention was kept secret.
The process of growing
flourishing technique reached in the years of World War II. Because of the inaccessibility of Brazil, the main source of supply of emeralds, the stones had to be synthesized for military needs. In the modern world hydrothermal jewels are used in jewelry, used in radio engineering, grown for laser equipment.
In the subsoil of the earth natural minerals are formed under the influence of high pressure and temperatures. In laboratory conditions, synthesis takes place in the most approximate setting. They create her appliances. To grow jewels you need:
- solution of elements;
- high pressure
- ; high temperature;
- cost crystal.
Natural gems of low quality or remaining waste from treatment are crushed into powder and dissolved. Particles are deposited and crystallized from solution at a temperature of 300-600 degrees. High pressure is created by autoclaves.
Particles of the created stone are attached to the high quality wafer. In the autoclave place a container with solution for several weeks. In the medium necessary for crystallization, future emeralds spend the time required to form a crystal of the desired size.
Application in jewelry by
its properties synthesized jewels are little different from natural analogues. Blue-green emeralds are recognized as among the most beautiful. Originals can be found extremely rarely. Jewelers willingly use synthesized stones: they are easily polished, amenable to cut.
Scientists grow crystals with predetermined parameters. Such stones allow you to create unique decorations that have no analogues. A certificate specifying all the materials used, their parameters, the manufacturers apply to each copy of the products.
Glued together with a special technique two or three stones are called duplets and triplets. The transparent base of such a sample can be rhinestone or beryl. The front part is colored.
In strength, such instances are inferior to solid stones. Therefore, in the description necessarily mention of duplet, triplet, respectively, decreases and the cost of decoration.