Types of sewage systems
What autonomous sewage system will be necessary and sufficient for your family is determined by its needs and conditions exploitation. Today, there are many options of different cost and design features. The simplest and most affordable can be attributed to the so-called cesspits. Not so long ago, 20 years ago, they were the most popular variants of sewerage systems and were used both in dachas and in private households. Its design is primitive — over the dug pit, which was periodically necessary to clean out, a small wooden or brick closing from inside the box was installed. Unsanitarium, lack of all comfort and unpleasant odor – this is an incomplete list of shortcomings of such a system. In the absence of funds and use in the summer version, you can choose this option at the cottage.
Recently on summer houses set biotoilets, comfortably no different from habitual citizens bathrooms in apartments. They can also be placed inside the house in any suitable room, but they require special preparations, moreover poisonous. In addition, there is a problem with waste disposal — filling containers require constant cleaning.
The largest distribution is now multi chamber septic tanks, which use concrete rings and chambers, special storage tanks and even just large diameter car tires from heavy vehicles. These systems are good because organic sewage drains coming from home and outbuildings undergo tiered cleaning, with an efficiency of 75%. But even with specially added bacteria to the suction chamber, septic tanks also need additional cleaning, which, depending on the load, should be done once every 3-5 years. Septic tanks are installed both on country plots, which are used all year round, and in private houses.
New technologies, which allow to do without the services of assenizers, are implemented in modern systems of deep biological purification. They, depending on the estimated number of people living in the house permanently, have different productivity and a high degree of cleaning — up to 98%. Is it worth saying that such systems have many advantages over the rest? First, it is water saving for watering — it is possible to use purified water through a deep purification system, which is absolutely environmentally friendly. Solid fractions resulting from the system are also used as fertilizers. The system works silently and no unpleasant odors are released, all processes are fully automated and do not require additional control and human involvement. It can be operated on soil of any type and at any time of the year at temperatures ranging from -50 to +40 °C. Solid fractions are removed using a drainage pump, this is required to be done every six months.
Which sewerage system to choose
The most popular system, which can now be seen both on country plots and next to private houses, is a multi-chamber septic installation made of concrete rings. Its advantage is the availability and low cost of construction material — ready-made concrete rings of different types, exactly the same, used in the construction of wells. Properly made sealed septic tank does not require special maintenance, does not emit unpleasant odors, and the degree of purification is easily increased by the use of special bacteria that decompose the organics into purified and clarified water and compost.
Disadvantages include the fact that a lot of space is required for the installation of a full-fledged three-chamber system, as well as the need to use special machinery and mechanisms in the transport and installation of concrete rings. In addition, the efficiency of treatment depends on the level of groundwater, increasing which can significantly reduce its quality.
For septic tanks there are installation standards – they should not be closer than 30 meters from the nearest well and 10 minutes of walking distance from the river.
At the same time, deep biological cleaning plants at all their advantages are very expensive and their use for seasonal living economically indefensible. The cost of them is directly dependent on the number of people living in the house.
Biological purification stations are designed to serve from 3 to 20 people, the cost of these plants is from 60 to 200 thousand rubles.